- 原书名：Optics and Lasers: Including Fibers and Optical Waveguides
- 原出版社： Springer
2. Ray 0ptics
2.1 Reflection and Refraction
2.1.2 Index of Refraction
2.1.4 T0tal Internal Refiection
2.1.5 Reflecting Prisms
2.2.1 Spherical Surfaces
2.2.2 Object-Image Relationship
2.2.3 Use of the Sign Convention
2.2.4 Lens Equation
2.2.5 Classification of Lenses and Images
2.2.6 Spherical Mirrors
2.2.7 Thick Lenses
2.2.8 Image Construction
2.2.10 Newton’S Form of the Lens Equation
2.2.11 Lagrange Invariant
The fourth edition included over 100 problems; many are designed to dis-play important results that are not discussed in the text. I have thereforeadded to this edition the solutions to all the problems. I hope that the in-clusion of the solutions will make the book more amenable to self-study, butalso that the solutions will enhance the usefulness of the book in the class~room. Finally, I think that optics has a lot of terms that are sometimes noteasily understood or whose technical meanings differ from their colloquialmeanings; "focal point", "grain", "intensity", and even "light" are examples.I have therefore added a glossary to the book.
Optics has been changing greatly for over 40 years, since the inventionof the laser. Partly because of the applied or engineering nature of much ofmodern optics, there has been a need for a practical text that surveys the en-tire field. Such a book should not be a classical-optics text but, rather, shouldbe strong on principles, applications, and instrumentation; on lasers, holog-raphy, and coherent light; and on optical-fiber waveguides and integratedoptics. On the other hand, it should concern itself relatively little with suchadmittedly interesting topics as the formation of the rainbow or the precisedetermination of the speed of light. ..
My purpose, therefore, has been to write an up-to-date textbook thatsurveys applied or engineering optics, including lasers, optical processing,optical waveguides, and other areas that might be called modern optics. I haveattempted to treat each topic in enough depth to give it considerable practicalvalue, while keeping it as free from mathematical detail as possible. Because Ihave surveyed applied optics in a very general way (including much more thanI would attempt to incorporate into a single, one-semester college course), thisbook should also be a useful handbook for the practicing physicist or engineerwho works from time to time with optics. Any of the material is appropriateto an introductory undergraduate course, in optics; the work as a whole willbe useful to the graduate student or applied physicist with scant backgroundin optics.
The book originated in class notes for several one-semester courses thatI offered in the Electrical Engineering Curriculum at Rensselaer Polytech-nic Institute and in the Physics Department of the University of Waterloo(Canada), before I joined the Optoelectronics-Division of the National Insti-tute of Standards and Technology. Most of the courses were at the second-and fourth-year level, but I have drawn much additional material from grad-uate courses I have offered in lasers and related areas. I have also used thebook as a textbook for courses in the Electrical and Computer EngineeringDepartment of the University of Colorado and in the Electronics Depart-ment of the Weizmann Institute of Science. To make the book as useful to aslarge an audience as possible, I have included short reviews of such subjectsas complex-exponential notation, superposition of waves, and atomic energylevels.
Nearly all the references are to books or reviews and are chosen to allowthe reader to explore any topic in greater detail. The problems are designedto help increase the reader's understanding and, sometimes, to derive a usefulresult. Certain portions of the text are largely descriptive; there I have usedcomparatively few problems.
It is my very great pleasure to acknowledge the invaluable assistance ofthe first editor of this book, David MacAdam, whose guidance and commentshave led to a clearer, more readable, and more complete work. My formerofficemate at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, William Jennings, read theearly versions with great care, offered excellent suggestions, and occasionallymade me rewrite the same passage several times with very salutary results.Helmut Lotsch of Springer-Verlag ably supervised the production of the earlyeditions of the book and adhered only to the highest standards.
I also acknowledge my debt to my former professors and fellow studentsat the Institute of Optics of the University of Rochester. My closest advisersthere were Michael Hercher and Albert Gold; I also have warm memoriesof Philip Baumeister, Parker Givens, and others. My first optics course wasRudolf Kingslake's introductory optical-engineering course, and I still occa-sionally refer to his duplicated course notes.
I have been working, on and off, with optical-fiber communications sinceabout 1972; the number of people I have learned from is, as a practical mat-ter, nondenumerable. However, I want to single out for acknowledgement myformer colleagues and co-editors of the Optical Waveguide CommunicationsGlossary and, in particular, Robert Gallawa and Gordon Day of NIST inBoulder. Neither of these able scientists ever lets me get away with anything,and Bob Gallawa has offered many pithy comments on the chapters on opticalwaveguides. I am equally grateful to Ernest Kim for his critical reading of theentire third edition. Kevin Malone and Steven Mechels formerly of NIST, sug-gested many worthwhile improvements, while Paule Hale of NIST reviewedthe material on noise in detectors with great care. Roberto Forneris and YaraForneris of the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and Burton Brody of BardCollege pointed out a number of errors and made many helpful suggestions.
Additionally, I thank Tim Ohno of the Colorado School of Mines forsuggesting the glossary and Reuben Collins of the Colorado School of Minesfor a tutorial on near-field scanning microscopy. Theodor Ta. mir, the editor ofthe second edition, offered dozens of helpful suggestions. I also acknowledgemy very good fortune to have been a Visiting Scientist at the WeizmannInstitute of Science. A course I taught there gave me the impetus to organize,edit, and supplement my problems and led to their inclusion in this volume.
Finally, I thank Hans Jiirgen Koelsch of Springer for giving me the oppor-tunity to revise and publish this fifth edition, and Torsten Baade, KristinaUhlendorf, and Barbara Luedge of the Friederich-Schiller University of Jenafor carefully weeding the errors from the text and, in particular, from theproblem solutions. Any errors that persist, like the weeds in my lawn, aremine alone. ...
Boulder, Colorado, June 2000